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This is supported by the fact that in some social groups, e. Mobile devices allow them also to manage their acquaintances in a better way, at least so they are convin- ced. For example, they noticeably influence the way of getting in touch with friends. The basic motivation to enter into communicative interac- tions with particular persons is not anymore a subjective need to mainta- in mutual relations but their accessibility and readiness to undertake gi- ven actions in a given moment.
PDF [ Watkins, L. Hjorth, I. Koskinen, Wising Up: Ni, Smart Phone The surroun- dings which the user of mobile devices navigates is equipped with a big number of devices connected with one another, they collect data, coope- rate and integrate with the device which belongs to a given user. He or she does not always realize that, but due to these persistent and partial- ly hidden interactions, his or her activities are not as much adopted to the surroundings as the surroundings adopts to them; — ubiquitous data access: Also environmental context becomes modified accordingly, and even physical and mental predispositions of a user; — extensibility and scalability: It was first noticed and described in such fields as economy and marketing and labeled mobile is different.
It is connected with the phenom- enon of the so-called smart boredom, which means using mobile devices as tools of asynchronous communication led randomly in free time,45 particularly noticeable in situations of short periods of waiting in public space, frequent in everyday urban life. Ghose, A.
A Stradivarius Christmas / making off
Harrison, Digital Trends Forecast , https: Goldfarb, S. Teoria, diagnoza, profilaktyka i te- rapia, Wyd. UKW, Bydgoszcz , ss. Hjorth, Mobile game Cultures. Hjorth, Playful Urban Spaces. The latter include games which engage innovative technical solutions, such as: GPS and hybrid reality games HRGs , in which urban environment becomes the playing field by making it possible for players to interact in physical world, and which enjoy a great interest of media researchers.
This led to diminishing the role of written word in compu- ter mediated communication and thereby to the increased share of the visual component. An example of a purely visual communications form developed by means of mobile devices is the global phenomenon known as the selfie. They make decisions faster and also less and less will- ingly use website browsers as they prefer applications which provide small portions of condensed and profiled information in a short period of time the so called filter bubble Relationship between the significance of a post and a single click increases in the case of mobile devices in compar- ison to stationary ones, which stems directly from the above mentioned smaller convenience when it comes to navigating them.
Teoria, diagnoza, profilaktyka i terapia, J. Hjorth, Mobile game Culturep. Oblicza internetu. Pariser, The Filter Bubble. Folksonomiczne genologie selfie, w: Farman, Mobile Interface Theory: Rheingold, Smart Mobs. They expect from digital devices a higher than before level of interactivity and also facilitations of naviga- tion, particularly in local surroundings, which is connected with the above mentioned need for selecting and profiling information. This stems from the fact that due to their specifics they facilitate creating dynamic ad hoc networks which are more difficult to control and even harder to pacify.
They allow young people to build their own communication channels and work out their own ways of using media, thus deciding in a historically unprecedented way about the shape of their milieu. Rheingold, Smart Mob. Media and Journalism in the Digital Era, eds. Gardner, K. Davis, The App Generation: Messenger na Facebooku. The egalitarisation of access to information, w: Konarska, A.
Szynol red. Ling, The Mobile Connection…, ss. Taylor, J. Hamill, A. Lasen, D. Diaper red. Goggin, Cell Phone Culture. It is connected with the aforementioned fact that young people were Mobile Media and Their Studies.. Thanks to them the youth gained independence from their families and simultaneously learned how to regulate the activity of the peer network while establishing it.
Mass scale of this activity led to moral panic among parents, educators and publicists who started to exaggerate the examples of such mobile practices as sexting sending by users, also minor ones, messages in- cluding erotic selfies or the so called happy slapping recording violent attacks on accidental people on a mobile phone and then sharing these recordings online as viral pranks. However, in recent years this approach seems to be losing its popularity. It is connected with the fact that both elderly and younger people are becoming mobile media users on a large scale.
Mobile World. Past, Present and Future, eds. Diaper, Springer, New York , pp. Goggin, Youth Culture and Mobiles…, op. Society and Space, Volume 22, Issue 1, , pp. Ling, The Mobile Connection…, pp. Goggin, Youth Culture and Mobile Goggin, Youth Culture and Mobiles Keep, The Portable Shrine. This erases the so-far distinctive age boundaries thus remodelling the percep- tion of the so called digital divide. The more important role it plays the stronger it converges with other devices transforming itself into a rich arsenal of multimedia devices with a possibility of networking.
Nowadays mobile photography enjoys enormous popularity all over the globe; contemporary cities are constantly scanned by millions of eyes searching for a proper shot in order to convert it into a digital flashback as an artefact generated on a mobile device, which will allow them to relive and reconfigure private experi- ences, even so saturated with emotions and so personal as mourning. Nowadays telephones equipped with cameras constitute important social spots and tools of experiencing it. Keep, The Portable Shrine Hjorth, Imaging Communities: Caron, L.
Caronia, Moving Cultures: Larsen, J. Urry, K. For example in everyday life coordinated by mobile media lack of punctuality becomes a much lesser issue than in the world deprived of this technical convenience, hence is it not adhered to as strictly as before. Rigorous rules and requirements in this respect are replaced by flexible punctuality. One example of research conducted in this context are the ways of managing home by working mothers,74 another are the ways of maintaining family bonds by young people who are study- ing away from home,75 which is directly connected with the mentioned above issue of domesticating mobile media.
It seems that using them modifies the perception of time and space categories also in a broader social context, which is illustrated by popular- ity of the above mentioned strategy of interaction avoidance, to say the least. Following this strategy one can easily avoid unwanted contacts in a random space shared with others by e. Users of mobile devices gain new wide opportunities in terms of controlling their time and space availability for others. Consequently they start understanding differently the borderline between private and professional life and they increasingly often work from home, but also pursue private matters at work.
This situation gives them freedom and agency, and as such it can become an element of social capital. Katz, Extending Family to School Life: This dynamism provokes to interpret subjectivity and agency in different innovative ways, thus influencing — in a multidimensional way — the theory and methodology of scientific re- search.
It also bears the significant stamp on social studies and humani- ties inducing them to take a general direction towards broadly understood issues connected with intimacy. Campbell, K. Jacek Zydorowicz Po obu stronach kamery. Zeidler-Janiszewska, O tzw. A significant body of knowledge about the world — something that all On Both Sides of the Camera.. The rema- ining quantum of empirical experience is provided by the less dominant senses of hearing, touch, smell or taste. In less literary times, the spo- ken word was the main vehicle of knowledge, sometimes supported and perpetuated by an allegorical image.
However, the situation changed with the entry into the Gutenberg galaxy and the increasingly widespread skill of reading written texts. After all, the first printed publications were Latin textbooks, followed by the Bible published in Mainz from to by Johannes Gutenberg. The textual universe, however, did not fully do- minate the human cognitive sphere; more importantly, print significantly supported the visual communication. To be exact — this text was not about iconology in the sense given to it later by Erwin Panofsky; rather than that, it was an elaborate catalogue of alle- gories, a unique visual dictionary or even a textbook for artists.
The history of communication came full circle — from the image thro- ugh abstract ideas and concepts, to the reemergent need for illustrative images of these concepts. The re-discovery of the image was intended to make others rethink its status and to seek new methods of analysis and criticism in the visual realm. The work both useful and necessary for Poets, Painters and Sculptors in the presentation of vir- tues, vices, affections, and human passions. Czasopismo In- ternetowe No.
T Mitchell, Picture Theory. T Mitchell, M. Bal, N. Boehm, O obrazach i widzeniu. Olechnicki, Antro- pologia obrazu. Oficyna Naukowa, Warszawa ; K. Studia z socjologii i antropologii obrazu. Uniwersytetu im. Klekot, Wyd. Bogunia-Borowska, P. Sztompka red. Sztomp- ka, Socjologia wizualna jako metoda badawcza, Wyd. Krajewski, R. Kaczma- rek red. Socjologia wizualna w praktyce badawczej, Wyd. Kaczmarek red. Szki- [ 82 ] ce z socjologii wizualnej, Wyd. In earlier logocentric theories, images were at most illustrations for the textual expression of thoughts.
An image construed in this way would again become an important mediator between the subject and the world. Since the image has effectively mediated between the various realities for a long time, many researchers in the humanities and social sciences have appre- ciated this potential, contributing to the creation of such subdisciplines as visual anthropology9 or visual sociology.
According to the Belgian researcher, skilfully ren- dered visual representations help e. Mitchell, Mieke Bal, Nicolas Mirzoeff , the Polish reader had an opportunity to get acquainted with the debate concerning the issues of visual culture. Olechnicki, Antropolo- gia obrazu. Studia z socjologii i antropologii obrazu, Wyd.
Bogunia- Borowska and P. Sztompka, Socjologia wiz- ualna jako metoda badawcza, Wyd. Socjologia wizualna w praktyce badawczej, ed. Kaczmarek, Wyd. Szkice z socjologii wizualnej. Collected publication, ed. Pauwels, Zwrot wizualny w badaniach i komunikacji wiedzy. Olechnicki red. Therefore, I have decided to concen- trate in this text mainly on the visual studies practices that make obse- rvations about culture through filming. This will be a twofold perspective: The focus and the way to address the problem as well as the ma- gnitude and seriousness, or a total absence thereof, was up to the par- ticipants.
They, too, had been familiar with film production and had acquired knowledge about the basic forms and conventions of com- munication via moving images. The particular etudes were completed by students with basic training in the language of film, audio-visual equip- ment operation and non-linear editing techniques. The workshop followed the principle of learning by doing and took place in a rather laid-back at- mosphere of collective creation on the set.
The footage shot on the cam- pus of the Adam Mickiewicz University Faculty of Social Sciences was a fusion of improvised scenes and on-camera commentary, so they were mainly created in the Monty Python-like poetics of absurdity. During the editing exercises, individual stories were created from the shared starting material. Naukowe PWN, Warszawa You can cynically not wi- On Both Sides of the Camera. But this experience is so much different from being oneself a witness to or orche- strator of the events and an author of a film footage about them.
It is ac- companied by a full awareness of biased tendencies, simplifications, hu- shing things up or, on the contrary, exaggerating or excessively dramati- zing events. While in the context of the information media, we have beco- me long accustomed to such forms, the matter seems far more problema- tic in terms of visual support of research methods. The researcher should be equally responsible for the word and for the image.
Therefore, in the practice of visual research, it is precisely this awareness of the difference between the mimetic and expressive potential of tools such as a camera and a microphone that is of prime importance. However, it should be no- ted that this knowledge does not necessarily have to discriminate against one of these potentials. Luc Pauwels considers their alleged opposition as misleading and unconstructive.
It is enough to be aware of the differences between them as indicated by the history of aesthetics. However, while the recipient of the message has every right to get confused sometimes, the incompe- tence of the sender is unpardonable. It is not always possible to control everything that is visible in the frame. In the meantime, e.
It is therefore extremely impor- tant to shape sensitivity and visual erudition14 among culture researchers, of course both in theory and in practice. Having been duly prepared to record motion picture and sound and to edit the footage, the students worked on their own etudes. The 8 films which were made re- presented very different poetics: In spite of some shortcomings in terms of the quality of the recording and thus the sound of the voice , the film offers an interesting shift.
The global machine of popular culture and the music industry has been domesticated, democratized or captured for personal use. In this sense, following John Fiske, we can speak here of selected aspects of cultural re- Ewelina Blum, sistance in pop culture. They recorded parts of the performances and short interviews by means of which they managed to effectively account for the atmosphe- re of such places. In the film, we see both those who can sing and tho- se who were encouraged to do so by a few pints of beer, which oversha- dowed their talent.
In spite of this contrasting set of abilities, the Authors decided not to enforce any aesthetic and artistic valorisation. They sum- med up the matter addressing the viewer directly: In both the videos, the music is not the main topic or a pretext, but it organizes well the rhythm of images.
Reducing them to their feet only, it se- ems to look at everything from the perspective of the dog. In the next shots, though, instead of the expected walk we see the owner packing the dog into the rear seat of the car, where the dog behaves normally, examines the views outside the windows and patiently waits for what will happen next. At this stage, the viewer does not know whether it will be a holiday trip or a visit to a vet. Meanwhile, the protagonist arrives at a football pitch and when the music reaches the climax and gains momentum, we witness an unexpected turn.
An anthro- pomorphic turn occurs; the dog gets a ball to play with and starts a who- le series of marvellous tricks, chases and turns. Moreover, the animal se- ems completely self-sufficient; it does not demand attention, animation, retrieval or other elements of typical human-dog behaviour.
The dog itself seems to be the author of choreography, because in fact it is difficult to imagine that such a dribbling and juggling feat can be trained. The camera mo- vements, though of necessity dynamic, do not wear us down; the editing is very careful and the slow-motion effect fully justified.
Viceroy, in turn, is an old brand of cheap cigarettes, advertised in the background of the movie by Canadian singer Mac DeMarco. The pictures showing paradise beaches and palm trees, shown with the camera moving away from them, quickly turn out to be illusory; they are either kitschy signage of solariums or a postcard with a tropical landscape tucked above a bathtub.
The similarly filmed Nina Prusak, Ode to Viceroy, rose in the shop window turns out to be made of plastic when seen up clo- se. When real flowers appear, they are already wilted, relegated to a bal- cony, a sort of extraterritorial place, a space between the private world of the apartment and the public space of the house backyard.
A lot more space is dedicated to two peculiar human avatars: Two further etudes refer to the experiences of international student mobility programs. In the final version, there were several shots of the movie protagonist du- ring the meal, supplemented by impressionist pictures of ordinary street scenes observed from the perspective of a walker. In the frame there are places which tourists do not see that often: At some point in the movie, Monika interjects casually: The protagonist therefore puts an equation mark betwe- en choosing a country to live in and choosing a dish from the menu: Na ekranie widzimy typowe miejskie scenki rodzajowe uchwycone na skwe- rach Triestu: It is worth adding, however, that studying there in this case turned out to be equal- ly marginal, definitely not something to write home about.
Instead, eve- rything connected with killing free time is shown very minutely. Careful- ly studied and selected shots were supplemented in the soundtrack with soothing background music in the form of the Maruzzella song performed by Renato Carosone. On the screen we watch typical urban scenes seen in the squares of Trieste: These shots are intertwined with portraits of the pro- tagonist engulfed in a whole array of daily rituals, such as brewing the morning coffee, pasta making, train travels, and walks along the sea co- astline.
In order to more effectively empower the character of Agne- se, the Author decided on something unusual: Agnese decided to prepare her speeches thoroughly, so she wrote them down and read out for the recor- ding. She talked about the little pleasures of everyday life, her collecting impressions and emotions and the associated need for feeling fulfilment in life.
According to Sonia, in terms of sound and melody of the sentences, it was little spontaneous and somewhat artificial, just like presenting a pa- per. Therefore, she initially planned to leave out this narration. Cezary Bezmienow proposed the form of an advertising spot, exten- ded to more than three minutes. Length is obviously not the only excep- tion to the generic principles, because the message is far from persuasi- ve. Nor can it be called a life-style one. Both the steps of the passers-by and the repetitive elements of the buildings windows, stairs, columns seem to emphasize the rhythm of the minimalist ambient music background.
The only colour element is the neon-lime logo of the clothing company occa- sionally appearing in the video. The film ends unexpectedly on a positive note: However, unli- ke in Kafka, instead of getting worse, things move in the opposite direc- tion: This incarnation option soon produces identity crises, too; the image becomes darker and the digital effects applied to it make it increasingly abstract.
In the finale, the camera applies a low perspecti- ve of the cat nervously jumping in the backyard lawn to the sound of he- avy guitar riffs. But it certainly appears open to both experimentation and liquid identity in liquid postmodernity. Of course, the knowledge derived from the few aforementioned short etudes does not in any way claim the right to any universality or legitima- cy. However, this modest attempt helps to approximate the potential and range of ways of describing student culture by means of moving images.
The Authors of these films, though they have mastered the skill of film- making to varying degrees, have definitely shown a lot of invention in fin- ding adequate visual forms for their ideas. Although there were not given any guidelines, they explicitly and intentionally attempted to transcend the pure conventions of the genre of reportage or documentary.
The films make it plain that the dilemma of a tactical choice between mimetics and expressiveness was not particularly embarrassing for the Authors. It is also significant that in the course of searching for their subjects, the students did not try to enter unknown areas but looked instead at their immedia- Cezary Bezmienow te, familiar environment. In this way the films definitely gained authen- ticity and in the attitude of their protagonists there were no artificial po- ses or other manifestations of overacting. Looking at the achievements of the documentary classics, one can observe the extreme importance and yet significant difficulty of learning how to establish a rapport between the filmmaker and the protagonist of the film.
XX wieku. Do contemporary image recording technologies promote visual competence? On the other hand, this situation is conducive to the overproduction of images, pictorial excess, visual cha- os, which in turn do not seem to have much to do with visual erudition or competence.
Can we say that with complete confidence, though? For example, did not the evolutionary development of techniques of image re- cording prepare us to some extent for this critical mass? The first wooden still and motion picture cameras along with a tripod and accessories weighed a lot and were very bulky. The low sensitivity of the photographic emulsion made the good picture dependent on intense light or relative stability of both the object photographed and the came- ra.
The effects of this breakthrough were felt both in amateur photogra- phy and in professional reportage. In this way, press photographs from the frontlines of the war were clear and dynamic. For the safety of re- porters, further refinements in the field of optics were of great importan- ce, especially the widespread use of long-range lenses, which allowed the photographer to keep a safe distance from the events witnessed, without losing the opportunity to capture important details. Far less revolutionary was the introduction of colour into photography and film.
Although the earliest colour pictures date to the late 19th centu- ry, due to economic reasons and other imperfections of the printing tech- niques, they were used in the press sector on a mass scale only in the s. In the US, this coincided with reportages from the so-called Si- x-Day War an armed Israeli-Arab conflict of , which enhanced the means of expression from the perspective of illustrated magazines: When the press magnate William Hearst got burned by such a lamp, he ordered all of his photojournalists to use magne- sium light bulbs which entering the press, which, unfortunately, also exploded every now and then.
Only electronic flashes were completely safe, see https: Do masowego od- Po obu stronach kamery. Michelle L. This, naturally, was strongly controversial and even some On Both Sides of the Camera.. For in- stance, when Life magazine covered the conflict in colour, Time retained the aesthetic of black and white. Mass audiences began to receive images earlier reserved exclusively for direct participants in warfare. This incre- ased the demand of press agencies for professionals who would combine solid photojournalist skills i. Magnum Photos Agency has remained until now a pla- ce where such talents17 are honed and polished.
The visual history of the Middle East events from the beginning of the state of Israel was created in parallel with the development of this agency and the techniques and styles of news photography. Both the authors of these photographs and press publishers were fully aware of their persuasive power and political potential. Woodward, when analysing these images in a spirit strongly reminiscent of Foucault , argues that it is obvious that photogra- phs are culturally-dependent objects, aesthetic vehicles of worldviews en- tangled in complex relations of ideology, knowledge and power.
This dematerialisation has elimina- ted the need for both cumbersome exchange of film reels in cameras and for the chemical treatment of these materials not to mention the pro- blem of smuggling them from endangered areas. Images from conflicts in the farthest corners of the globe could almost instantly reach the edi- torial offices of news magazines.
It is worth pointing out that the automa- tion of cameras in terms of selecting aperture parameters or exposure ti- mes began still in the days of analogue photography and has continued since. Gradually, relevant programs made it possible to devote more and more attention to the composition of the frame and to focus on the con- tent itself. On the other hand, cheapness and ease sometimes entail care- lessness, lack of precision and mediocrity. Even the smartest technologies will not replace the intelligence of a photographer or filmmaker. Expe- rienced authors seem to be in this regard always a few steps ahead of amateurs and volunteers.
The motto of the agency are the words by H. Magnum is a community of thought, a shared human quality, a curiosity about what is going on in the world, a respect for what is going on and a desire to transcribe it visually. Quoted after: Digital image processing creates a lot of temptations, whether it is a shift of the Egyptian pyramids into a better composition the infamous case of The National Geographic or the smoothing down and slimming of photo models, we deal with fraud.
The discussion gets bogged down in justifications of harmless distortions, the degree of ac- ceptability of these corrections, low social harm, etc. Imperceptibly, too good a photo has become suspicious and less credible. That is why, on the news agency side, we are seeing an increase in the interest in the content provided by amateurs who are direct participants of some events. Online tools provided by po- pular browsers now allow a far easier exploration of this sphere. When, for example, we are interested in the mechanism of the so-called viral, or a popular meme, modern technologies assist us.
The fact that someone recognizes within a few seconds on a screen a masterpiece by Ingmar Bergman does not necessarily mean that he himself would be able to shoot something of the same calibre. This is a trivial, but fundamental distinction between know-how and just-know. In this respect, the most advanced imaging and digital editing technolo- gies will not be able to replace experience, skills, talent or intuition. Visu- al culture, however, does not stand still; the new situations created by so- cial media call for novel, network-specific competences.
Actually, Biafra had in mind a slightly different alternative for the mainstream media, more counterculture one, activist or e. Bodenmann-Ritter red. Keen, Kult amatora. Social media, however, On Both Sides of the Camera.. No matter what our assessment of so- cial media as to the production of knowledge of the world, they have provided a counterbalance to and have partly become a source for offi- cialnews agencies.
It is hard to unequivocally claim whether online services such as YouTu- be might satisfy Joseph Beuys, who in the s promoted the slogan that anyone can be an artist Jeder Mensch ist ein Kunstler.
It is possible that he would even launch his own channel on this site. But beyond the rhetoric of speculation, it must be pointed out that YouTube-style portals and the participative Web 2. Naturally, the confines of this short text prevent meticulous and mul- ti-faceted analyses of the issues outlined above, so I will limit myself to just a few observations on the changes that YouTube has made to visual culture.
Others, like copyright issues, YouTube has coped with by themselves. Meanwhile, YouTube has become a pretty big archive of the modern iconosphere of moving images. Jeder Mensch ein Kunstler. YouTube has then been forced by [ ] market and legal methods to permanently trace down and remove copyright in- fringing content. Trudno z tego jed- Po obu stronach kamery. It is difficult to do so, ho- On Both Sides of the Camera.. Thus, the idea was perfectly tailored to the human need for self-presentation and no wonder the volume of published content is growing exponentially.
A completely separate issue is the aesthetic or artistic valorisation of the videos published by the YouTube community. What position should one actually take to make its criticism adequate or authorized? It is possi- ble to judge the quality of the frames, the degree of mastery of the tech- nique of editing and adding sound, relate critically to the message, etc.
But what should our benchmark be? Should we use as benchmark the ma- sterpieces of the cinema or the prototype video from the zoo? All the more so, since the YT community has produced film genres and subgenres that are present nowhere else and has paraphrased for its own needs earlier conventions.
It is impossible to make a complete typology here, but it is worth mentioning a few of them by way of example. The review of product labelled as unpacking is a very popular conven- tion born just among youtubers. Previously, it seemed unlikely that the viewer could have taken any interest in the process of taking a cell pho- ne out of a box. A relatively uniform filming has developed here.
It is mandatory to film from a subjective perspective, where the camera adopts the angle of the reviewer, showing his or her hands when using the object and with a spoken commentary on the object being reviewed. Interestingly, in the narcissistic era of the selfie these youtubers actually avoid showing the- ir faces.
This is the role adopted on YouTu- be by a lot of musicians both pros and talented amateurs who are wil- ling to publish tutorials for beginners, patiently explaining, for example, how to put finger after finger on a bass guitar neck to perform an at- tractive riff from a Red Hot Chili Peppers piece. In this case, the co- nvention more frequently displays the face of the musician and ap- plies different camera angles, yet the fingers and the instrument always remain the priority.
A similar trend is maintained throughout the DIY segment, from tiling bathrooms to following a cheesecake recipe.
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It would seem that such productions are as beneficial for the consumers as is watching patrons eat a sumptuous meal through a restaurant window for a hungry person. Nothing further from the truth; the number of entries and comments is indeed mind-boggling. This handful of selected examples can well illustrate the weakness or uselessness of the traditional categories of film or art criticism. This does not mean that this valorisation is not there; on the contrary, every youtu- ber exposes him- or herself to the evaluations and comments of other users. In addition, there are replies by means of videos.
This, in turn, entails the desire to raise the artistic and aesthetic level and the content quality of published footage. This is made possible thanks to numerous technological innovations and facilities discussed in the preceding para- graph. Today, almost anyone who has access to the internet, takes photographs and shoots films even with a phone to be published on their profiles and in this way becoming a digital native. Therefore, they do not need to learn many things in visual communication to be effective, just like a child who learns a language without knowing its grammar rules.
Of course, a growing percentage of them are trying to improve their skills and are fascinated by technical in- novations, the constantly improving parameters of sports cameras, etc. As a side note, it is worth mentioning that the drop in prices of these ca- meras greatly expanded the creativity of the youtubers to their use outsi- de of extreme sports. The widespread use of motion recording devices does not always entail an increase in visual competencies even among digital natives.
For exam- ple, many smartphone users consistently film different scenes by holding their phones vertically. To warm up before the sparring, representatives of the competing clans [ ] insult each other in short YouTube videos shot specifically for this purpose. Of course, the battles themselves are also uploaded. However, the material ob- On Both Sides of the Camera.. How to assess the usefulness of social media in the field of visual rese- arch?
The videos posted there can provide viewers with entertainment, be anecdotal or treated as a guide of sorts, a platform allowing an exchange of views, or even a virtual venue of a host of conspiracy theories concer- ning history and various debunking practices. What, however, is valuable for a culture scholar is that these materials can also refer to socio-cultu- ral contexts of their performance, to the standards and rules respected or broken by their authors, to the motivation of their choices, identifi- cation with or distance from the subject, etc.
Filming will be seen here as a more complex socio-cultural practice, rather than just a chaotic produc- tion of flashing images. On the other hand, the whole range of reception practices is also worth analysing: Interesting observations can also be made in the vi- sual layer, for example, when amateurs try to catch up with the expertise of the professionals, and professionals of crypto-advertising impersonate the style of amateurs to gain more credibility among internet users.
The- re is also a lot of study material at the intersection of the interests of visu- al culture researchers, economists and ethicists. The joyfully adopted and domesticated participation culture is underpinned by a need for storing a colossal amount of digital data.
If it pays off for a corporation to finance them, it is obvious that the benefits of collecting data concerning users: Proper tagging and customisation software makes it easy for us to navigate the site, sugge- sts content that may interest us, but only because our every move is re- corded and we rely on permanent profiling. What is interesting, for many modern users, privacy is a value worth bearing in this unequal exchange.
In this way, a person who is holding an old-fashioned keyboard phone is beginning to be seen as having something to hide, per- haps a criminal, or even a terrorist. We should moreover bear in mind all kinds of traps that make us start using cognitive prostheses poorly fitting, at that instead of rese- arch tools.hoacontsultacand.cf/map11.php
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The fact that some On Both Sides of the Camera.. After reaching a few thousand hits, the snowball effect begins: Another trap could be naive treatment of posts and publica- tions in social media as serious sources of knowledge. Unfortunately, even major news agencies have been deceived in this way, which has often for- ced them to issue rectifying statements, leading to a reduction in credibi- lity.
Well, a culture researcher can do little about this lack of verifiability, especially in the face of the disinterest of social media users with respect to the responsibility for the published words and images. The anonymity that the network environment allows used to be bla- med for this state of affairs. But over time, even the customised profi- les of well-known people have been filled with hate, post-truths and ab- surd conspiracy theories. Recent US elections seem to confirm that inter- net users look not so much for truth as for spectacle that provides exci- tement and emotions.
However, in addi- tion to visual erudition, the researcher should develop a whole range of other visual competencies. There is no place here for mediocrity, all the more so since the crisis of representation diagnosed by postmodernism is still fresh in our minds. Since images are so prone to manipulation, abu- se and overinterpretation today, how can they serve as a credible, objec- tive and scientifically valid tool?
Worse still, with respect to visual studies, the scholar becomes in a way lazy in the field of narratives and interpre- tations, especially in situations where he thinks that the picture speaks for itself Excessive fascination with the pictorial turn should not result in activities such as those shown in the film Fahrenheit dir. It consistently uses a strongly animistic rhetoric consisting in attributing human qualities to images. This asignment of agency and autonomy to images can be cognitively effective but irritating in the long run.
This, however, does not diminish the accuracy of many of the observations and [ ] metaphors of the author of What do images want? See W. The audio-visual material as the subject of analyses by cultural scholars clearly requires explanation by means of text, which has indeed been happening since the onset of the discipline. On the other hand, films cre- ated as an integral part of the research process can coexist with a clas- sic textual commentary e.
However, in order for this second variant to be valid and co- gnitively effective, the following seem necessary: At least basic competences in the field of cinematography and film language although it is possible to hire a professional crew to have them do the work, you have to know what to expect from them , 2. Strategic decisions as to whether the film medium will be the most appropriate for the research problem, 3.
The footage must be made in a way so meet the relevant standards of explanation, be transparent and — let us not be afraid of the word — at- tractive for the recipient. Obviously, to meet the third demand it becomes necessary to em- ploy text with the film. Another film incarnation of the text is, of course, the words spoken by the protagonists, commentators, re- spondents, etc. The task of the researcher is only to organise images and words so that recipients do not lose their bearings.
At the initial stage, the script is responsible for it and in the final stage editing comes into play. Time will tell what they will steal, what they will take over and what new elements of film grammar will be- come the sub-generic identity of visual research. Mobilna prywatyzacja — rewizja koncepcji Od mobilnej prywatyzacji do intymizacji Technology and Cultural Form. Williams, Mobile privatization, w: Du Gay, S. Hall, L. Janes, A. Koed Mad- sen, H. Mackay, K. Negus red. Mobile privatization — the concept revised From Mobile Privatization to Intimization After all, as Wil- liams wrote himself: What it means is that at most active social levels people are incre- asingly living as private small-family units, or, disrupting even that, as private and deliberately self-enclosed individuals, while at the same time there is a quite unprecedented mobility of such restric- ted privacies.
All the shells are moving […] but for their own different private ends. Williams, Mobile privatization, in: Doing Cultural Studies. The Story of the Sony Walkman, eds.
przedszkole trzylatka przewodnik metodyczny pdf to jpg
Koed Madsen, H. Mackay, [ ] K. Morley, Przestrzenie domu. Morley, Home Territories. To better understand the process and its adequate application for the sake of the key category of mediatised student culture, it would be worthwhile to follow briefly the logic of the development of the mobile media as a gra- dual strengthening of the tendency of the privatization of mobility.
The Walkman or a mobile device used for consuming musical content in motion, i. De- buting in , the Walkman made by Sony registered trademark of the concern became later a popular term used to define all portable, mobile devices for playing music nearly immediately gained such a tremendous popularity that it created a cultural phenomenon of its own kind, establi- shing a new approach of consumers to the reception of music. Hanson, Mass Communication.
Hills, Mobility, Interactivity and Identity, w: Creeber, R. Martin red. Jenkins, Kultura konwergencji. According to the researcher, those mechanisms produced by Kodak company were the first to announce the contemporary reversal of the-then dominating trend i. This change caused that photo- graphy ceased to be solely restricted to photographic studios and became an activity pursued by individual users while taking a walk or on holidays.
Hills, Mobility, Interactivity and Identity, in: Digital Cultures. Understand- ing New Media, ed. Nie jest ani z nami, ani z nimi [ Morley, Communications and Mobility: From Mobile Privatization to Intimization In succession, then, according to David Morley: Mobile phone user in public space does not walk down the street, does not walk in the park, does not drive a car the way others do.
He is not with us, nor with them […]. Simultane- ously phone users can discretely play like actors in the theatre using body language which is an anthology of acting techniques and pro- vokes inquisitive insights into private lives of the performers. As the cultural theorist Ian Chambers has suggested: Green, L.
Haddon, Mobile Communications. The practices of contemporary users of the most popular mobile media at the moment, i. This storing of the rich repository of mate- rials in phones mostly in the form of pictures taken by a given user , and subsequently sharing them through social media, becomes a crucial prac- tice which hybridizes Heim and Heimat categories one more time. The in- crease in the significance of mobile communications technology — deter- mined by a gradual evolution of mobile phones towards smartphones — is actually often interpreted by ever increasing importance of visual sphere made available by such devices.
In an attempt to conduct a unique clas- sification of visual content of the mobile media Nicola Green and Leslie Haddon write: Jak pisali autorzy raportu: Filiciak, M. Danielewicz, M. Halawa, P. Mazurek, A. As the authors of the report wrote: Taking photos has never been so easy and cheap, and at the same time so common and frequent, as it is today. Almost everyone can take photos and everyone is exposed to a deluge of visual stimuli on a daily basis. Photos which young people deal with, no matter how they have been created, gain their full meaning in digital cir- culation, i. Taking photos is involved in many everyday practices not connected with art.
The acco- unt is maintained by a different person every week. The person records their daily life, surroundings, passions and everything that they want to immortalize by posting at least one picture illustrating it every day. We kindly invite you to post your hearts and comments! Thus, student culture would be a variety of urban culture connected with the activity of specific institu- tions academic ones and places universities, per se, but also dormito- ries and student clubs.
Student culture constitutes this sphere of mobile media culture which seems to be one of the most developed and varied in terms of the num- ber of social and technological practices conducted within it, and more im- portantly, purposes which are hidden behind using mobile technologies. IBL, Warszawa This part of the report, which is devoted to how to understand student Student Culture as an Activity..
Media, urban practices and student culture. In both cases, this cooperation took the form of a research workshop with the application of the project method. Its aim was to have students develop1 research and animation projects fo- cused on the question of student culture and its transformation, taking place in contemporary urban reality and in relation to the development of mobile media. Six groups of students from 10 to 20 people in the group divided into several teams took part in the workshop. However, the use and publication of the results of the work of individual teams was voluntary.
The studies were of qualitative character. They were conducted with the use of the cultural analysis methods. Still, the basic tool used by all groups was mobile photography. The in-class discussions in the working groups and the varied forms of presentation of the interim effects of the work were important elements of the project.
Michalska, L. Foremska, A. Studia Kulturo- znawcze [in press. The text will be published in English]. Molenda, A. Dimensions of mobility and redefinition of the student culture concept One of the research goals of the Mobility project was a redefinition of the concept of student culture in order to render it more adequate for de- fining, analysing and interpreting the cultural experience of present-day students as a group which actively contributes to creating an urban reality. Of course, the key factors here were the changes resulting from the so- called media mobilization process6. Interestingly, it was the student group that was taken into account separately in the research that accompanied the introduction of mobile media in Poland wireless access to the Internet and portable modems, mobile phones and smartphones , e.
Initially these were mainly young, educated or educating inhabitants of big cities. Of course, with time this division grew more and more relative along with the availability of wireless networks, public places with access to wi-fi and in connection with the popularization of mobile devices phones, smartphones, tablets, etc. However, we can still maintain that the experience of students as a social group is unique in the context of media mobilization. Media mobilne [mobile media], developed for the purposes of the Mobility project: Report available online at: Szacka, Wprowadzenie do so- cjologii, Oficyna Naukowa, Warszawa , ss.
Sztompka, Socjologia. Naukowe PWN, Warszawa , ss. In the project itself, however, we intended to capture several distinct, divergent meanings of the mobility in question. These meanings are vari- ously operationalised in contemporary scientific reflection, and only when taken together do they help us determine the cultural, communication and technological changes taking place, and — in a new perspective — address the problem of student culture as a phenomenon.
First of all, the obvious reference is e. On the other hand, it is vertical, because the students, despite the aware- ness of the transformations of the Polish educational reality, continued to interpret tertiary education as a form of social promotion. The second, important reference context was spatial mobility, in several aspects at the same time. Secondly, the mobility of students as users of urban space turned out to be extremely important.
Szacka, Wprowadzenie do socjologii, Oficyna Naukowa, Warszawa , pp. Sztompka, Socio- logia. Naukowe PWN, War- szawa Urry, Mobilities, Polity Press, Cambridge Fra- nek, Wyd. Lash, C. Majmurek, R. Mitoraj, Wyd. The last, fourth aspect was of course media mobility, resulting from the use of mobile technologies both for the purposes of studying itself operating electronic systems such as USOS , as in connection with professional and private life and cultural activity.
Of course, the most important here were the works of John Urry and his project of the Sociology of Mobility,11 in which the latter concept is already used in principle in the plural mobilities. This12 plural form helps us pursue mobility on a global scale, which includes physical movements, symbolic flows and technological transfer of information.
The two-way process of medializing the experience of mate- riality and the materialization of media products have been described e. We will come back to this issue of unique student and mobile experience of the urban context. At this point, it is vital to stress that all the aspects of mobility consid- ered by us during the project have necessitated a redefinition of student culture, the key category for this part of the report. In this perspective, the results of activities of all working groups and all those involved in the Mobility project prove that the concept of student culture requires redefinition in relation to the tradition of analysing this phenomenon in the Polish humanities and social sciences.
Kultura, ludzie, miejsca, trans. Medializacja rzeczy, trans. Beyond cultural circulation, generational movement Student Culture as an Activity.. As the editor of the work wrote in the introduction: And it is the passage of time, in particular the social and political transformations taking place, changes in the civilization and culture after , which made obsolete student culture in the form in which it developed and functioned since the mids until the end of communism in Poland.
It was pri- marily a specific cultural circulation, more or less connected with both official and independent culture actually functioning quite effectively on the border between the so-called official and independent, and at some point also alternative, culture circulation As a current, student culture was characterized by the fact that, on the one hand, it was institution- ally related to academic structures student organizations, universities , while on the other it was a specific enclave of freedom and creativity.
Kultura studencka. This division well reflects the diversity of forms of student culture in Poland: Dziamski, Kultura studencka: In the same volume, this phenomenon was characterized by Grzegorz Dziamski as follows: We are talking [ Festivals of Student Culture. It was also influenced by the fact that the creators and participants of this cur- rent were representatives of so-called academic youth, though not with- out exception: Kultura stu- dencka.
Sztuka otwarta. Teatr, ed. Od laboratorium do warsztatu, w: Kulturowe studia miejskie. As a border- Student Culture as an Activity.. They were carried out from a scientific perspective, although there were also self-definition and self-identification publications. If one were to search for theoretical concepts that would explain the student culture in Poland under communism as a unique culture current and a movement, one should mention, for example, the sociological con- cepts of culture. This approach allows us to show that student culture required the formation of formal and thus in some sense institutionalized social networks, yet it was also an important generational experience, which determined its partly bottom-up charac- ter.
In both cases, however, it was clearly associated with academic cities and specific places, centres and communities that could be located on the maps of these cities. The author provides several reasons for the above. Kulturowe studia mie- [ ] jskie. Could I have , please?
Use of the proper Rel. Abigail - le 10 juin A First Class stamp http: Evan - le 10 juin Could I take your name and number, please? DE - le 10 juin I'll put him on http: Jennifer - le 10 juin I didn't go to university http: Savannah - le 10 juin An estate agents http: Jose - le 10 juin What's the current interest rate for personal loans? Students should not solicit an alternate. Dylan - le 10 juin Will I have to work on Saturdays?
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